Show and Tell: Why Writers Need to Do Both

Note from Brooke: This post is by Inked Voices member writer Melissa Gardner. Sometimes we are lucky enough to host her for small group workshops, and she does professional critiques for writers, too.

Every writer knows the phrase, “Show, don’t tell.” We’ve heard this admonishment in writing classes, we’ve heard this advice in workshops, and we’ve read this adage in countless books on craft. In fact, we’ve heard “show, don’t tell” so often that many writers have come to the wrongful conclusion that showing is “good” and telling is “bad”—yet, this simply isn’t true. As writers, we need to both show and tell.

When we write a scene and/or use direct dialogue, we are showing. Showing is used to capture what is happening in a specific moment of time, seeking to create an immersive experience for the reader. We want the reader to feel and see what the character feels and sees in a vicarious way.

When we write to provide information, we are telling. Telling can be used to establish a setting and mood, introduce character, move quickly in time, and/or set up a scene. We want to guide the reader through the story in a way that provides the reader with the information they need while keeping the reader engaged and interested. In a sense, we are preparing the reader for what’s coming up next.

For example, consider the first chapter of Tolkien’s The Hobbit. Before we see Bilbo and Gandalf’s first scene together, Tolkien takes the time to tell us about Hobbit holes and provides a condensed summary of Bilbo’s family history. Because Tolkien does this, we are prepared for what’s to come: we understand the setting, we know a bit about Bilbo, and therefore the scene where the two meet makes sense to us.

However, telling doesn’t just have to occur at the beginning of a book or story. For example, in Rowling’s Harry Potter series, she often condenses months of time, summarizing what’s going on at Hogwarts, in between important scenes in the novels. These passages move us quickly through time, yet keep us interested and engaged in the life of Harry.

The most important reason to both show and tell is pacing. We can’t ‘show’ everything in a story; doing so grinds the narrative pace to a halt. As Jerome Stern states in his book Making Shapely Fiction, “Showing…takes a lot of space.” If we do nothing but show, the reader becomes bogged down in the excessive details and sensations.

A better rendering of the phrase “Show, don’t tell” might be: Don’t show when you should tell and don’t tell when you should show. Use “showing” for scenes that are key to the overall narrative. These should be the places where you want to slow the pacing down to highlight the scene’s importance. Save “telling” for places where you need to move things along in the narrative, but still need to provide information to the reader to set up the next important scene in the story. By using both, you’ll keep the reader engaged and successfully guide them from beginning to end.

About Melissa Gardner

Melissa Gardner has been writing since she learned her ABCs. Her love of stories and storytelling was fostered by her grandmother who read to her daily. Melissa received her MFA in Creative Writing (Fiction) from Seattle Pacific University and is now working on two short story collections. She has taught at a variety of universities since 2005, and currently teaches literature and fiction writing classes online for Southern New Hampshire University. Originally from Pennsylvania, she now lives on the Gulf Coast with her husband, three cats, and Monty, her ball python.

If you enjoyed this article, you may also like Frank Flaherty’s “Getting Your Story Moving” lectures. Melissa Gardner has also given several talks for Inked Voices, on dialogue , point of view, and narrative structure. All of these talks are included in Inked Voices membership.

My Year Reading Books About Writing

Note from Brooke: Today’s post is from Heather Pagano. I’ve been fortunate to hear about this journey in drips throughout this year and hope you find her conclusions as helpful as I do!


“I don’t read books about writing.”

I’ve said these words, or some variation on them, so many times. For years this was my mantra, part of my identity as a writer. I feared getting stuck in the morass of advice books for writers, becoming a wannabe who collected writing books and thumbed through their pages, now and again, like some kind of armchair travel novel. I truly didn’t want to read about writing, I just wanted to write.

My aversion to writing books meant I didn’t have much experience reading them. I’d enjoyed a few behind-the-scenes reads that explained the writing process of an individual author I admired. It was fun learning more about the authors and how they approached their craft. But none of these books helped me understand what I should do when I sit down to write, and my personal writing process remained unchanged.

In fact, I didn’t have much of a writing process. For me writing had always been a strange mix of intuition and tireless effort. I’d be struck with an inspiration, write a draft, revise it, and send it to an editor. I put in years of work, writing dozens of short stories and several novels with little more guidance than knowing what I loved to read. Once in awhile I got lucky and published a story, but I never knew what had made that story work, while another did not. And I grew overwhelmed by serious problems in my novel drafts that I didn’t know how to address.

Then near the end of 2016, my husband, who has always been interested in screenwriting, purchased a video lecture course by Aaron Sorkin. I sat in on a few lectures out of curiosity, and my main takeaway from the series was a burning curiosity to read Sorkin’s highly recommended Poetics by Aristotle. I was all the more intrigued because the teacher in a writing class I’d recently taken had also highly praised Poetics.

Reading Poetics revolutionized my idea of what it means to tell stories. In particular, Aristotle’s discussion of medium, our basic genres (tragedy, comedy, epic), and plot structure not only resonated with me, but gave me some great aha moments that later came in handy while wrestling with my own drafts.

I loved Aristotle’s practical advice and no-nonsense approach. He never shied away from explaining what made a story great and what made a story stink. Unfortunately only fragments of his brilliance survived the ravages of time. Still, I couldn’t believe how valuable his advice was to me as a modern storyteller.

Poetics gave me reason to hope there were other books that could help me improve my writing. I began a quest to search for writing books with potential to teach me how to become a better writer. Together with my husband, we declared 2017 our year of intensive reading about writing.

The first step in organizing our year of writing study was to zero in on the specific aspects of writing we wanted to improve. As a novel and short story writer, I focused on story structure, editing, and writing exercises.

Next we needed to find the best books on these subjects to include in our study. We read reviews and tried to get a feel for which books had most helped other writers. Whenever possible we chose books written by authors whose work we love, and we learned to recognize a great teacher when we started reading one.

We approached our study with a spirit of adventure. We had great discussions about points the authors were making, agreed and disagreed with the authors and with each other, and looked for examples of techniques we were learning both in the fiction books we were reading at the time and in favorite novels we both knew well. When we read something that resonated with us or that explained something in a useful way, I took notes. If a book didn’t resonate with us or turned out not to have value for our goals, we were never afraid to abandon the book mid-read. And we were always open to steering our intended study plan in a more fruitful direction as we learned and put knowledge into practice throughout the year.

Most important to me, at the same time we dove into our reading, I kicked my writing practice into high gear. At the end of every study session I was eager to try out what I’d learned with my current works in progress.

Books on Story Structure

Since we’d read Aristotle’s Poetics I should have been ready for the overlap between drama and story structure. But I was still surprised that the best books we found on story structure came from the fields of screenwriting and playwriting.

If I could only suggest one single book on story structure, it would have to be Story by Robert McKee. McKee is a guru in the screenwriting industry. He breaks down the elements of story design and explains act structure, scene design, and character. McKee makes my job as a writer clear: to move the reader through a series of emotional peaks and valleys and reach a highly charged climax. Better still, Story explains how to construct that experience. McKee’s writing style is designed to help the student learn. He’s engaging and organized, stating a thesis and developing it with further explanation and entertaining examples. By the end of every section, I felt like I owned the information. McKee may have written this book for screenwriters, but Story tops my list of of books to improve storytelling in any medium.

My runner-up favorite story structure book also hails from the film industry: Save the Cat by Blake Snyder. Snyder hits on many of the same principals that McKee explained so beautifully in Story, but adds step-by-step techniques and processes I found incredibly helpful when plotting. Save the Cat stresses the pitch, or logline of a story. Being able to tell anyone what your story is about in a few words is an invaluable skill. I also loved the way Save the Cat breaks down genres into categories helpful to writers. Don’t expect to see reader-defined genres such as romance or science fiction in Save the Cat. Instead, Blake categorizes story types to teach writers how to fulfill readers’ emotional expectations for each archetype. And, of course, Save the Cat is famous for its Beat Sheets. Beat Sheets brought me to a whole new understanding of pacing and crafting the emotional shape of a story. Save the Cat is tied to a thriving online community where you’ll find examples of Beat Sheets for both film and fiction writers.

Two honorable mentions in story structure books:

1 The Art of Dramatic Writing by Lajos Egri. Egri wrote the book in the 1940s and his intention was to instruct playwrights. McKee’s Story covered much of the same material in a more updated and engaging way, but a few of Egri’s insights are gems that made it worth the read.

2 Bullies, Bastards & Bitches: How to Write the Bad Guys of Fiction by Jessica Page Morrell. This is a deep dive into story and plot structure from the perspective of character. I expected this book to be all about antagonists, but it covers antiheroes and dark heroes, as well. BB&B reads more like a collection of essays than a through-composed instructional book, but if you’ve already gleaned the basics from McKee or Save the Cat, then your characterization skills could definitely get a boost from this read.

Books on the Editing Process

Once a writer has structured and written that well-honed first draft, what’s next? Time for editing.

Editing is a tough skill to teach, but Self-Editing for Fiction Writers: How to Edit Yourself Into Print by Renni Browne and Dave King takes on the task and succeeds. Browne and King discuss the role of narrative summary and characterization, proportion and POV, paragraphing and unintended repetition. I found the chapters on dialog mechanics, dialog editing, and interior monologue particularly useful. Browne and King’s advice plays in my head every single time I sit down to write or revise. I loved that the authors weren’t afraid to call out editorial style in this book, and were upfront giving opinions on how to edit so writers look and sound current, fresh, and modern.

I reveled in Browne and King’s nitty gritty details of what to do when I’m editing. But if all this sounds way too technical and you’re looking for a shorter overview of the editing process, I’d also recommend The Artful Edit by Susan Bell. Bell offers great advice (my favorite: read your work aloud to yourself). The Artful Edit was especially enjoyable to read because its examples chronicle exchanges between F. Scott Fitzgerald and his editor while they collaborated on The Great Gatsby.

Books on Writing Exercises, Inspiration, and Idea Generation

Keeping a fresh crop of new story ideas flowing is important for writers. Writing exercises can help with this, while improving overall writing chops. I found a few fantastic books that made writing exercises fun, educational, and inspirational.

Ursula K. Le Guin’s Steering the Craft was one of my favorite 2017 reads. I consider Steering the Craft to be a book of writing exercises. Le Guin certainly offers pithy advice and great insights in the text, but her expertise prompting students to learn by writing makes this book shine. Her exercises gave me a far deeper understanding of POV than I ever had before and really got me thinking about person and tense. I also cultivated a stronger appreciation for the sound of the words I choose. Since I’m a fantasy writer and long-time fan of Le Guin’s fantasy novels, I expected to come away from her writing exercises with a boatload of fantasy story ideas, but that’s not what happened! Instead I ended up with many intriguing characters, settings, and conflicts that are great fodder for mainstream fiction or as stories in a number of genres. In fact, by turning some of those exercises into actual stories, I also learned invaluable lessons about what it takes to develop an idea or a character into structured plot.

If, like me, you find joy and value in writing exercises, here’s one other book that was tremendous fun: The Ode Less Travelled by Stephen Fry, a comedian who is absolutely passionate about poetry. I chose to include a book on poetry in our year of writing study both because I wanted to better appreciate the poetry I read, and because Ursula K. Le Guin and Susan Bell taught me to pay attention to how my writing sounds. Poetry is fantastic training in the sound of words! I also learned how to evaluate the rhythmic structure of the English language, and I experienced the power of alliteration and rhyme. As we read The Ode Less Travelled, I developed a spreadsheet full of wonderful terms such as dithyramb, trochee, and pyrrhic substitution. Pretty geeky, I know, but such a delight for the word connoisseur. The Ode Less Travelled is brimming with creative poetry exercises that let me shake off the stiffness I often feel when confronted with a rhyme scheme or syllable count. The book makes writing poetry fun and approachable. Writing a poem is now something I look forward to between drafting and editing projects.


Our 2017 year of writing study has been a fantastic experience. It helped me create a personalized, step-by-step process that takes me from that first flash of inspiration to a finished draft ready to send to an editor or share with my critique group. Having the resources to develop my own personal writing process has worked so much better for me than using the process of another writer or a set of techniques recommended from a writing class.

What’s more, for the first time in my writing life, I can answer the question: “how is your story going?” or “what progress did you make on your writing project today?” I know and feel good about what I’ve accomplished and have a realistic understanding of what work remains.

Our year of study has also given me the context I needed to understand and take action on suggestions made by editors and critique partners. And I feel much more confident when giving feedback to other writers.

I’m so glad I softened my attitude on reading books about writing. But the good experience wasn’t all about attitude. Targeting specific topics for our study helped make it worthwhile. Having a study buddy to keep me motivated and have great discussions with was invaluable. And thanks to my careful note taking, we can spend December reviewing, summarizing, and synthesizing the most important points we learned.

But, the coolest part? I never once used my year of reading about writing as an excuse to avoid sitting down to write, and all the hard work that entails. In fact, I ramped up my writing time while we were studying this year. That meant what we were studying was never theoretical, but of crucial importance to how I was going to approach my current works in progress later that day.

Whatever your goals are for the coming year in continuing to hone your craft, I wish you fantastic resource books, intriguing study, and lots of writing.

Links to the Books

Poetics by Aristotle

Story: Substance, Structure, Style, and the Principles of Screenwriting  by Robert McKee

Save the Cat!: The Last Book on Screenwriting You’ll Ever Need  by Blake Snyder

The Art of Dramatic Writing: Its Basis in the Creative Interpretation of Human Motives  by Lajos Egri

Bullies, Bastards & Bitches: How to Write the Bad Guys of Fiction  by Jessica Page Morrell

Self-Editing for Fiction Writers: How to Edit Yourself Into Print  by Renni Browne, Dave King

The Artful Edit: On the Practice of Editing Yourself  by Susan Bell

Steering the Craft  by Ursula K. Le Guin

The Ode Less Travelled: Unlocking the Poet Within by Stephen Fry

About Heather Pagano

Heather is excited about building a career as a fantasy and magical realism writer and has found Inked Voices a fantastic place for resources and support. Language, philosophy, and music have a big influence on her writing, as do the many places she’s lived. After growing up in small town Iowa, Heather studied classical trombone in Upstate New York. She’s since lived in Italy and New York City. Heather now lives in Silicon Valley, California, a creative type happily adrift in a sea of technologists.


Planning Your Writing for 2018: a Perfect Task for December

The holidays are a nutty time of year. For me, there’s just too much going on with coordinating gatherings on both sides of the family, buying gifts for a growing list, and attending yet another special celebration at my children’s school. As much as I love the festivity of December, the external demands overwhelm me and sometimes I want to go find a cave and hibernate.

Instead, this year, I retreated inside my head to work on a writing plan for myself . I wanted to take a bird’s-eye view of my writing to assess where I am, and then create a path towards my goals. With a limited amount of writing time, I need to be very intentional about how I use it.

Below, I’ll share the approach I took to writing my plan. This is a simple, working document, influenced by my background in strategic planning and more recent experience in curriculum development. The plan includes four sections:

  1. Assessment
  2. Vision
  3. Commitments
  4. Action steps.

Three tips before you start…

  1. As you create your plan, remember that it is a working Maybe you’ll show it to a friend or to your writing group for feedback or accountability. But your plan is mainly a functional object. Hold wordsmithing until the end, or skip it entirely.
  2. Be honest with yourself about what is realistic. Most writers have additional responsibilities. At the same time, allow yourself to dream and think big, especially in the early drafts.
  3. Think about how you’ll get things done in addition to what you want done.

An Assessment of Today

A good plan starts with an assessment of where you are now. How do you feel about your writing? What have you accomplished this year?

Here are some additional questions to consider. Answer the ones that resonate with you. Your responses could be on craft, writing process, or the business of writing.

  • What areas are you confident in?
  • What areas are you less confident in?
  • What are your strengths?
  • What could you improve?
  • What is your writing process?
  • How is your writing process going for you?

Also think more deeply about your accomplishments – the things you did in 2017 (or to this point, if you prefer). Here are some examples:

  • Reading: books read, both books you read in your genre and in other genres
  • Writing: words, pages, or manuscripts written
  • Submissions: queries sent, manuscript requests, agent landed, acceptances
  • Writing groups: did you participate in a group, critiques given
  • Community: did you engage with the literary community and how
  • Business of writing: actions to further you as a professional writer
  • Marketing: actions taken to market your published work
  • Personal development: courses, agent/editor critiques, self-study

Did you surprise yourself after putting this information together?


Put that assessment of today to the side for a moment. This next section is about looking forward to where you want to be. You’ll look at this at a high level first, and then break it down further to your commitments for 2018.

Here is a choice of two prompts to get started. Write your response in paragraph or bullet form.

  • Envision yourself as the writer you want to be. How do you feel, what are you working on, and, possibly, what have you accomplished?
  • What are your goals? Note: these can be writing craft or process goals, or goals associated with getting your work out into the world.

Don’t worry about whether your goals or vision are “good” or done correctly; just get your thoughts down. For example, on my list, I included having more creative energy, building my poetry skills, and getting a children’s book published.


This section is a summary of what you will commit to do in 2018. I’ll keep it on my desk as a high-level reference.

If you’re a visual person, try this: put “current you” on the left side of a piece of paper. Then put “future you” on the right side. In the middle, brainstorm actions that bring you towards your goal. Bulleted lists or mind maps work well, too.

Focus on the process you’ll use, rather than the outcomes. These are things that you can do to achieve your goals. Another way to put this: ask yourself “how?” and “what do I need to do?” For more on setting process goals, check out James Clear’s article, Forget About Setting Goals. Focus on This Instead.

Here are some examples.

  • If you are a novelist, consider committing to a writing schedule that will enable you to produce the volume of words needed for a book, instead of putting “write a novel” on your list.
  • If your goal is to get your short stories published, you could commit to sending a number of submissions, researching markets for your work, or taking a class to improve your craft.
  • To have more creative energy, you could commit to a weekly writing time, an earlier bedtime, yoga or other exercise, or coaching.
  • To get a book published, you could commit to a queries goal, a weekly writing time, or seeking professional feedback.
  • Whatever you write, consider committing to reading in your genre. You’ll improve your craft, educate yourself on the market, and re-energize.

This was a highly iterative process for me. As you can see in the examples, there are many ways to pursue a goal. Your choices will depend on where you are as a writer today. And we can’t and shouldn’t try to do everything. After thinking through the time it would take to achieve my commitments in the action plan section (detailed below), I had to dial back. After all, this is a working plan, and I want to be able to execute on it.

Action Plan

This is where you get specific with how you’ll achieve your commitments. Here are some questions to consider. Write out responses to the ones you need to answer for yourself.

  • How much time can you commit? Be honest about your time, whether that’s cutting down on your social media use to find time, or scaling back your plan.
  • How much money can you spend? Do you have a budget for your writing?
  • When will you work through your plan? Consider blocking time on your calendar, picking a consistent time, or building in deadlines.
  • Where will you work on your plan? Do you have a designated space for your writing? Might you plan a retreat or writer’s vacation?
  • What tools and resources do you need? Do you need a new notebook and pen? Books or classes? A desk? Decide what’s necessary and budget for it.
  • Who will you work with on your plan? Could a critique group or accountability group help you? A writing coach?

Your action plan will be specific to your commitments, which were shaped by your goals. For a person who is working to establish a writing routine, it could be as simple as this:

I will get up early on Tuesday mornings (when) to write for one hour (how much) at the local coffee shop (where). That day, my husband (who) will prepare the kids for school and drop them off. I’ll tell my sister (who) that I’m doing this and ask her to check in with me when we chat.

I’m working on improving elements of storytelling and on strengthening mindset, so my action plan includes a simple curriculum of books and articles. I researched books (what), pulled articles, and organized them by quarter. I had a sad face moment when I realized I could only reasonably cover seven books next year. I’ve put the others on a side list in case I get ahead. My calendar is marked for January “study time” and writing time (when). And I’ll share my progress with my Wordies in my accountability group (who).

After completing your action plan, review your commitments and make any adjustments. I went back and forth between these two sections several times.

Final thoughts

Take this process to the level of detail you’re comfortable with. Your plan should chart your course and push you off the dock, but allow for some flexibility and surprise. Remember, this plan is primarily for your eyes and is meant to be a working plan, not a writing exercise. Mine landed at about 2 single-spaced pages.

Put your plan in easy reach of your writing area and review your progress periodically. You can and should tweak it as needed. To remind myself of that fact, I’m saving my plan as a draft, and will title any changes as new versions.

Happy planning! Let me know how it goes for you in the comments below.

Cheers to a productive, intentional 2018 for your writing!

Brooke McIntyre
Brooke McIntyre is the founder of Inked Voices, helping writers write more and write better through its platform for online writing groups and its app Ink On. She’s passionate about using technology to facilitate peer learning, about connecting with people on a human-level on the web, and, of course, about writing. Brooke received her undergraduate degree from the University of Virginia and her MBA from the University of Michigan. She lives with her husband, two kiddos and their muppet of a dog in Brooklyn.

Word Mandalas

We write, we collect words, we move forward. We build a portfolio word by word, piece by piece.

This time, however, let’s veer off in a new direction. Instead of thinking of our words as inviolate, start thinking of them as ephemeral. And when I say this I don’t mean our words don’t matter or they aren’t important. I mean we should recognize they come to us through an act of creation: they already exist, but we use our creativity to pull them from the ether.

To illustrate, write a paragraph or a scene or some other chunk of words. Next, destroy it. Yup. Throw it away. Delete it. Toss it in the dumpster. Light it on fire and watch the smoke wend its way back to the ether.

Why in the world would we create something just to destroy it? Because it’s an exercise in impermanence and abundance.

Buddhist Monks invest hours upon hours creating sand mandalas then ceremoniously destroy them. The intricacy, the beauty, the divine representations are swept away in one definitive action. Though I am not comparing myself to the spirituality of a Buddhist Monk, I appreciate the meaning and intent behind their action.

When we create—and then destroy—we have a concrete example of how our work is fleeting, how nothing is permanent. This helps us to appreciate what we have now, for now. We cannot write to our full potential while we fret about the past or fear the future. We can only write for now. When we live and create in the present our words will resonate with genuineness.

Destroying our words with intention helps us to feel less attached to—and enamored with—them. Be honest: back in your younger days when you wrote, you knew your prose was absolute and unequivocal genius. You believed in it. You loved it. You were certain it would endure the test of time, and the world would recognize you as a writing wunderkind. You couldn’t conceive of how editing would improve upon perfection. Have you looked at those works of pure genius lately? If you have, then you know why we cannot become enamored with our work.

By letting go and then creating more, we learn to trust that our creativity and our words are abundant. We don’t have a finite cache of words inside us which we must conserve and dole out in trickles lest the well runs dry. No. We have an abundance of words. By destroying some then writing more, we learn to believe we possess all the words we will ever need. They’ve always been there and always will be.

Finally, by mindfully tossing our work, we open our mind to editing. Think about it: isn’t editing merely throwing away the bad words—the ones we initially thought were good enough to write down—and replacing them with others? When we learn that it’s ok to destroy some words and write more, our editing prowess is heightened.

Go ahead. It’s ok. Chuck ‘em. There are always more where those came from.

John Caruso
For as long as John can remember, creativity has bubbled through his life. From his days as a young boy recording off-the-cuff "radio plays" on an old Sears portable cassette recorder to starting his own photography business to playing tin whistle in a Pogues/Waterboys cover band to writing two novels in search of a publisher, John has been delighted by all endeavors creative. Even a 20+ year detour into the nine-to-five world of not-for-profit education and outreach couldn't deter him from seeing the beauty in everyday moments and easily-overlooked details. Finding art in the mundane is his daily quest, and one which can produce some extraordinary truths.
Currently, John is teaching creative writing to elementary and high school students, editing a daily newsletter for employees of a major pet food company, and writing his weekly ImPROMPTu posts for the Inked Voices' group of the same name. He's photographing both for art's sake and for commercial ends. He's shooting a second cookbook. And somewhere in the moments in between he's writing a book on "everyday creativity."

Interview: Debut Author Melissa Stoller on her new chapter book and writing process

Brooke: I’m so pleased to have member Melissa Stoller on the blog today to celebrate the release of her debut chapter book The Enchanted Snow Globe Collection – Return to Coney Island, and talk about her process.

Melissa: First, thanks so much for interviewing me, Brooke! I’m so happy to be part of the Inked Voices community and I’ve really enjoyed participating in workshops with you!

B: Where did you get the idea for the book? 

M: I’ve been thinking about writing this book for years! The Enchanted Snow Globe Collection – Return to Coney Island is actually based on the story of how my grandparents, Jessie and Jack, met on the Coney Island trolley. My grandmother Jessie was a natural storyteller, and I always asked her to tell me stories about when she was a little girl. This was my favorite story. I live in New York City and enjoy visiting Coney Island. In fact, in 2001, I wrote an article about planning a day at Coney Island and included my grandparents’ story. Also, I have a huge snow globe collection. This idea has been marinating and simmering for a while and it finally came together in this time-travel chapter book adventure series.

 B: When did you start working on it? How did the project evolve over time?

M: I finally started writing this story into book form about two years ago. At first, I thought it might work as a picture book. But as I wrote, and the story and characters developed, I realized it was better suited as a chapter book. I really enjoyed having more freedom of word count and more ability to draw out the story over ten chapters, which the chapter book format allowed. I also included an author’s note describing my inspiration for the book, as well as a Family Book Club Guide at the end that includes questions for discussion, and related enrichment materials: a snow globe project, apple crisp recipe, family connection projects, and links for extended research. I think parents and educators will appreciate the opportunity to continue the discussion and creativity with their young readers through this Guide.

B: What are your plans for the series?

M: I’m so excited about this book series! My next book is The Enchanted Snow Globe Collection – The Liberty Bell Train Ride. Twins Emma and Simon shake another snow globe from their grandmother’s collection, and are transported to Philadelphia in 1915. They witness the Liberty Bell making its last trans-continental train ride to San Francisco. And they realize that their Great-Great-Aunt Lucy was one of the schoolchildren who signed a petition bringing the Liberty Bell to California. When trouble brews, the twins and Aunt Lucy must help the Liberty Bell get back on track! All the books will include the twins connecting with an ancestor and of course they’ll have lots of adventures together. I’m so thankful that I have several more books in the series planned with Clear Fork Publishing, with the very talented Callie Metler-Smith illustrating.

B: Tell us about your path to publication.

M: I included the world-famous Coney Island Cyclone roller coaster in Book One – Return to Coney Island (it’s also featured on the cover!). And I feel like my path to publication has been a bit of a roller coaster ride itself, with lots of ups and downs, and twists and turns. I’m a lawyer, and also worked as a legal research and writing instructor, a legal career counselor, and an early childhood educator. I tried to write pictures books around twenty years ago when my oldest daughter was born. When I received MANY rejections, I put that aside and instead I wrote parenting articles and co-authored a book called The Parent-Child Book Club: Connecting With Your Kids Through Reading.

But I had joined SCBWI years ago and always kept current with my membership and with industry news. The creative writing bug kept nagging at me and so a few years ago, I started to become very active again, attending more conferences, signing up for writing classes and writing challenges, joining critique groups, and reading and practicing everything I could about children’s book writing. I feel like I’m finally stepping off the roller coaster onto solid ground!

B: What have you learned about your writing process over the course of the project?

M: Over the course of this project, I’ve learned to keep going and keep writing! With the longer format of a chapter book, I developed an outline that I followed to make sure the story arc remained tight and flowed well. That’s not to say that I wasn’t flexible . . . I was. I added in story points and deleted ideas that weren’t working throughout the process. And I had to delete certain scenes that I liked that just didn’t fit (but maybe they will reappear in some form in a later book!). Also, I was careful about researching period and location information from the 1920s. Finally, with the longer chapter book, I tried to make sure all the characters acted consistently throughout the story and had distinct personalities that I could build up even further as the series developed. My mind is constantly buzzing with snippets of dialogue or adventures the characters may face as they move through the series. It’s been as exciting as an amusement park ride so far!

B: You’ve had a good deal of workshop experience. What advice do you have for people to get the most out of a workshop? 

M: I love workshopping ideas and drafts, especially with Inked Voices! I have participated in three Inked Voices picture book workshops, and I get so much from them each time. I’m thrilled to say that my debut picture book, Scarlet’s Magic Paintbrush, will debut with Clear Fork in 2018! I’m so excited to share this story about art, magic, and creativity! And as you know, Brooke, this was a story I workshopped with Inked Voices (although it had a different title then). I’m really looking forward to joining your new workshops this fall with some brand new picture book stories.

I love having new people read and comment on my picture book drafts, and the Inked Voices community has been so supportive and generous with ideas and insights into my work. I also love providing feedback because I feel that I learn so much through reading and commenting on other people’s work. Also, the agent or editor advice in the final webinar session is so helpful in putting it all together! To get the most from the workshop, it’s so important to be open to constructive criticism and critiques and to be willing to spend time being helpful to the other participants.

When I give critiques, I use the “sandwich” method – I first share several positive comments about the draft, then I include several specific areas that I feel could use improvement, and then I end with more positive overall comments. I learned this as a legal research and writing fellow in law school and used it as a legal writing instructor in two law schools. I think it’s really an effective critique method. 

M: What is your revision process? 

Usually, I get an idea about a title or a story line pops into my head. I jot it down right away so it I don’t forget it! Then I think about it for some time. After that brainstorming period, I write a first draft and then put it away for a little while. I do edit that first draft as I go along, but I mostly try to just get my ideas down on paper. Then, I go back and really start the revision process. I don’t number my drafts because there would be too many! I first revise big picture issues like story logic, character and plot, the story arc, making sure the story has enough emotional resonance and layers, showing not telling, leaving room for the illustrator, and more. I’m also wordsmithing as I go along. But I do also revise separately for small picture issues like word choice, grammar, and syntax. After all that, I send my draft to my critique group and to any workshops or critique professionals. Whew…that all takes so much time and effort, but I think it’s in the revision process that the magic of writing occurs.

B: Thanks for being here, Melissa! I loved hearing about the inspiration for the book. And I’m looking forward to buying a copy from you! 🙂 Congratulations! Check out Return to Coney Island here.

M: Thanks so much, Brooke! See you in our workshop group this fall!


About Melissa Stoller

Melissa Stoller is the author of the debut chapter book The Enchanted Snow Globe Collection – Return to Coney Island(Clear Fork Publishing, July 2017); the debut picture book Scarlet’s Magic Paintbrush (Clear Fork, March, 2018); and The Enchanted Snow Globe Collection – The Liberty Bell Train Ride (Clear Fork, April 2018).

Melissa is a Regional Ambassador for The Chapter Book Challenge, an Admin for The Debut Picture Book Study Group, an Assistant for Mira Reisberg’s Children’s Book Academy, and a volunteer with SCBWI-MetroNY. Melissa writes parenting articles, and has worked as a lawyer, legal writing instructor, and early childhood educator. She lives in New York City with her husband, three daughters, and one puppy. Find Melissa online at, MelissaBergerStoller (Facebook), @MelissaStoller (Twitter), and Melissa_Stoller (Instagram).

Brooke McIntyre
Brooke McIntyre is the founder of Inked Voices, helping writers write more and write better through its platform for online writing groups and its app Ink On. She’s passionate about using technology to facilitate peer learning, about connecting with people on a human-level on the web, and, of course, about writing. Brooke received her undergraduate degree from the University of Virginia and her MBA from the University of Michigan. She lives with her husband, two kiddos and their muppet of a dog in Brooklyn.

Siren Song of The New

I’ve been thinking about the evolution of writing tools over the course of my career. With the dizzying array of programs, apps, and web-sites, writers have unprecedented access to tools, training, and research. Technology has fundamentally changed the way we write. But as anyone who’s read a fairy tail knows, you can’t always trust Leprechauns, Genies, or Rumplestiltskin. Wishes granted aren’t always wishes fulfilled.

I perfectly understand how easy it is to become enamored with shiny new tools and toys while forgetting the grunt work. Whether it’s obsessing over finding the best pen (I’m looking at you Parker Sonnet fountain pen), the best notebook (I love Leuchtturm 1917s!), or the best word processor (hello Scrivener and Ulysses), we are drawn to finding the perfect tool to magically make the act of writing feel more natural.

But as they say when they paraphrase Francis Bacon: Technology is a great servant but a bad master. Don’t let the “magic of the new” rule your writing. Use it wisely. Use it efficiently. But never mistake technology for work.

Back in my typewriter college days I insisted those newfangled computer things were nothing but trouble. I remember Tiffany Corgan losing her entire senior thesis when a thunderstorm knocked out both of recently installed campus computers. Game. Set. Match.

Then a year later, I became acquainted with the office’s old Apple Macintosh at my first job out of school, its glowing monochrome gently ushering me into a new technological future filled with easy corrections and (almost) effortless dot-matrix printing.

Since then, I’ve seen so many iterations of Windows, Macs, and even a few Linuxes. I’ve seen flip phones become proto-smart phones become release after release of iPhones. With every technological stride, with every new piece of hardware, with every software innovation, I bought into the promise of easier writing. However, as is usually the case with tricksters, each next-best-thing makes the elusive pot of gold that much sparkly-er and harder to grab.

While process and mechanics may improve, the simple act of putting one word after another remains constant. This is why technology’s siren song can easily shipwreck us on the rocks. We are seduced into focusing on how the next major release or long-anticipated update will finally be The One to solve our problems. But we are looking at it all wrong. Our problem isn’t how we record our words, but rather how we craft them.

Now before I start hearing words like “Luddite” or “Gutenberg Hater,” I want to say I am not anti-technology. Anything which can free up our mind to spend more effort on stringing words together gets a big thumbs-up from me. But I have to be very conscious to not get swept up in finding the definitive device or app–and the definitive ones after those–at the expense of just sitting down and writing. By all means, make technology your servant. Just don’t let it become your master.


John Caruso
For as long as John can remember, creativity has bubbled through his life. From his days as a young boy recording off-the-cuff "radio plays" on an old Sears portable cassette recorder to starting his own photography business to playing tin whistle in a Pogues/Waterboys cover band to writing two novels in search of a publisher, John has been delighted by all endeavors creative. Even a 20+ year detour into the nine-to-five world of not-for-profit education and outreach couldn't deter him from seeing the beauty in everyday moments and easily-overlooked details. Finding art in the mundane is his daily quest, and one which can produce some extraordinary truths.
Currently, John is teaching creative writing to elementary and high school students, editing a daily newsletter for employees of a major pet food company, and writing his weekly ImPROMPTu posts for the Inked Voices' group of the same name. He's photographing both for art's sake and for commercial ends. He's shooting a second cookbook. And somewhere in the moments in between he's writing a book on "everyday creativity."

Make Progress on Your Writing by Setting Small Goals

Last week I returned to the University of Michigan (YEAH!) for an alumni event. This was a fabulous, small gathering with many opportunities for one-on-one conversation. When I told people about my work with Inked Voices, I could not believe how many responded that they’re interested in writing a book. A couple had participated in NaNoWriMo or had a draft in process. But others mentioned it as a dream, something to do later, something to do in retirement.

This struck me hard, probably because I’ve been there. I remember that the hurdle to writing seemed large. I felt like I had to be either all-in or not at all. And so I did nothing with a dream I held for 15+ years. It took the birth of my second for me to say, hey, it’s time.

If you’re a person who has said “later”, or “after”, or “when I” to your goal, this note is for you.

Life events are good catalysts. But you don’t need to go and [insert your favorite: have a child, retire, move, get sick] to write. I would argue that a simple mental shift can do the job.

Saying “I’m going to go write my book now,” is a seriously inspiring but terribly overwhelming goal. It’s easy to fail at a goal so large. Would you go from the couch to a marathon directly?

Instead, challenge yourself to a small goal. Microscopic will do nicely.

For example, set aside 30 minutes per week for your writing. Or, write 50 words per day. Setting goals for number of writing days or writing sessions, or pages written works, too. Experiment to see what resonates with you. Your goal should be easy to remember and relatively easy to achieve. The start is not your moment for stretch goals.

Here are some suggestions to play with:

Types of Writing Goals

Pick a small goal and work with it. You don’t even need to tell people you’re working on your book. If the subject comes up, you’re doing some writing. Let the seed grow some roots.

It’s OK to exceed your goal. Those days, give yourself a high five and celebrate.

If you’re not succeeding, tweak the type of goal and how much you do.

Track your progress in a notebook, an Excel spreadsheet, or the notes section of your phone. Inked Voices has an app called Ink On specifically designed for tracking your writing. Note what you accomplished and review the results weekly or monthly.

Get consistent with something small. Then when you feel ready, you can layer on an additional stretch for yourself. Maybe it is another 10 minutes, or another writing session for the week.

Start by establishing your writing process and pretty soon, you’ll see the pages add up. And maybe, it will grow to become a book.

Brooke McIntyre
Brooke McIntyre is the founder of Inked Voices, helping writers write more and write better through its platform for online writing groups and its app Ink On. She’s passionate about using technology to facilitate peer learning, about connecting with people on a human-level on the web, and, of course, about writing. Brooke received her undergraduate degree from the University of Virginia and her MBA from the University of Michigan. She lives with her husband, two kiddos and their muppet of a dog in Brooklyn.

Why your writing group member goes missing and what to do about it

You’ve exchanged critiques. It seemed to go well. Maybe, you’ve had some conversations: about your families, work, writing process, favorite books, publishing. Now, your writing group member or partner is missing.

This is a problem for online and in-person groups. I’ll speak from the online vantage point, but these thoughts can be applied to in-person groups, too.

Online, communication is presence. When a group member stops communicating or participating, it is like they have disappeared. Often, the rest of the group is at a loss: how in the world do they reach this person they met in the vast universe of online?

Groups also worry. After writers have worked together for some time and become colleagues and friends, there can be a sense of loss and anxiety. Sometimes, people become frustrated or angry. Perhaps one writer has given critiques and just posted her work. Then her partner disappears, leaving the work untouched. This strikes at our notion of fairness.

After some time, the other writers may discount the missing writer and apathy can set in. If multiple writers go missing the group can disintegrate around that inactivity. If the group leader is missing, things are worse, because communication breaks down from the top.

You can see how this can set an entire group into a tailspin.

So, what to do?

Above all, approach this with kindness and a gentle heart. The overwhelming majority of writers who ghost out are not doing so to be mean-spirited.

Why people go missing

1. Life happened

The longer I work with writers and writing groups, the more I see the tough stuff people go through. Being sick or taking care of a sick family member takes an emotional and physical toll. Job changes, high pressure deadlines, and heavy loads for students can stress finances, family and time. Members of our community have lost parents, siblings and friends. I know it took me a few months after losing a friend this fall to feel remotely creative.

Life happens in such good ways, too. There are weddings, new babies, new houses, vacations, plans, adventures. We can get swept up in all of the activity.

We all carry so much on our plates, it is no wonder that things fall off when we get busy or overwhelmed. Including our writing.

Your writing partner may not send everyone a message to say that something has happened. He or she may physically be away from communication. Or the person might withdraw into themselves and go quiet.

2. Group Issues

Sometimes it is an issue with the group. Fit, fear and frustration are common reasons that writers disappear.

New group members may have realized the group is not the right fit, and either forgot or haven’t had the chance to excuse themselves. Long-standing members may find that the group no longer fits because of changes in their own goals or situation, or because the culture of the group has changed.

If the writer has not contributed to the group at all, it may be because of fear. Some have told me they think they are not good writers, or that they are not as talented as other writers in the group. Some are worried about receiving overly critical feedback.

Frustration with a member or a particular submission can crop up, too. Not knowing how to address the issue, the person goes quiet.

Check in to see what’s up and show you care

No matter the case, the first step is a friendly reach out. Avoid making assumptions about the writer as person, particularly if you are frustrated or angry that the person has been missing. Avoid assumptions about why the person has been absent, unless you have an idea from previous conversations and want to mention it in a supportive way.

If I do not know a person very well, I might invite them to submit to the group. I’ll also ask how they are doing, and if they have any questions or concerns about the group. If the person has gone missing for a more substantial amount of time, I might ask if anything has gone wrong with the group, or if all is okay in their world.

If I know the person more deeply and their inactivity is unusual, I’ll send a note asking if things are okay.

You can do this reach out whether you are the group leader or a member of the group. Reach out from a position of care and your writing partner is going to feel supported.

If you don’t hear back, you may want to get in touch with the group leader and let him or her know you are concerned. If the group leader doesn’t hear anything either, you may want to seek help outside the group. I know I am happy to check in on people—I worry when members of Inked Voices’ community go missing! I am sure that this would be the case, too, for other writing organizations.


When a person responds to your check-in, it’s a great opportunity to bring them back into the fold of the group. How to do this will depend on why they’ve been quiet. Here are some ideas:

  • If the person is not ready to return, perhaps they communicate to the group that they are taking a leave of absence. Respect the person’s confidentiality and let them direct how much to share. If the person prefers, you can share in their stead.
  • If there was a particular concern, discuss it with the individual to help them handle it. If you feel the concern may be felt by others, discuss group-wide on your discussion board or in your next meeting.
  • If there is fear, you can offer to be a safe space in the form of encouragement and constructive feedback with your critiques. Or, you could see if the person would like to do a partner exchange with you before sharing with the whole group.
  • If the person was temporarily over-busy, give them a summary of what’s been happening in the group and invite them to participate.
  • Consider opening a group-wide discussion about the group. Revisit the way the group is organized and its goals. Use this as an opportunity to check in with the whole group.
  • Sometimes it can be helpful to do introductions or re-introductions to help new members feel welcome and bring them up to speed. This is especially true for established groups with close members. It can be awkward to step in!
  • A variation on the intro is a group check in. Ask each member to bring the group up to speed on what they’ve been working on, stumbling blocks, current goals, etc.

Open the lines of communication and situations like this can be an opportunity to make the entire group a stronger community.

Removing a member from your writing group

After a point, if a person is not responsive, you may have to remove them from the group to make room for someone else and/or keep the group to active members. Consider where that boundary falls; what feels reasonable to you and the rest of your group? The culture of your group, particularly expectations of participation, will largely drive this.

It can be helpful to have a written inactivity policy for these situations. I would recommend including a timeframe, what actions the group will take, and why. For example:

“Our goal is to create a close-knit, active community of novelists. Because our group is small, members who do not submit, critique or otherwise contribute to the group for 45 days will be notified. If we do not hear from the member in two weeks, he or she may be removed from the group.”

When I remove a person from a group because I haven’t heard from them, I like to let them know that the reason is to make room, and to contact me if they want to come back. You cannot force participation, nor can a group wait indefinitely hoping the person will come back. But you can leave the door open. 

I hope that some of these thoughts have been helpful. Please feel free to share any of your favorite ideas, too!

Brooke McIntyre
Brooke McIntyre is the founder of Inked Voices, helping writers write more and write better through its platform for online writing groups and its app Ink On. She’s passionate about using technology to facilitate peer learning, about connecting with people on a human-level on the web, and, of course, about writing. Brooke received her undergraduate degree from the University of Virginia and her MBA from the University of Michigan. She lives with her husband, two kiddos and their muppet of a dog in Brooklyn.

The Word-Nursery

Being a part of the Inked Voices world means being part of a community. The myriad opportunities offered through the website are valuable and engaging. But the most valuable asset is the people. At the core, a writing community- whether online or “in the real world”- is driven by the people who participate. The connections we make, the effort we give, and the trust we establish with other writers all conspire to drive our growth as authors.

As writers, we spend a lot of time alone in our heads. We think. We write. We edit. But for all this alone time, we benefit from sharing our words with others. Enter the critique groups. Critique groups are the nursery for our creative growth, a place where our nascent ideas flourish and where we help others usher their bourgeoning thoughts into creative maturity.

I believe in the power of critiques, both for the critiquer and the critique-ee. When we share our work and let it take those first few tentative steps into the world, we change it. By sharing our evolving work we embark upon an important step. Critiques are an essential tool in allowing our work to flourish. We ask for feedback and opinions. We transform our solitary endeavor into a social one. Through critiques we discover the impact and shortcomings of our budding words. The beauty of a critique group is the wide ranging opinions we receive. And the key word here is “opinions.” One of the missteps of a writer new to critique groups is taking every bit of feedback as law. The feedback is meant as a guide, not a hard edit. We need to read through all the thoughts and suggestions and use what feels right, what makes sense. We expand our repertoire from the inside out.

Alternately, giving a critique is a valuable endeavor. When we read someone else’s work with a critical eye, we simultaneously hone our writing skills. By recognizing plot holes, weak characterizations, and clunky writing in other works we are better able to begin seeing them in our own. We get a feel for new writing styles, approaches, and visions. We expand our repertoire from the outside in.

As members of Inked Voices–or any critique group–we have an amazing resource at our disposal: community. But that resource only works if we use it. So by all means, join a group. Join a few. But once you’ve joined, participate. Submit your work for critiques. Read what other writers feel about your words. Learn from them. But just as important, take the time and effort to read and critique other stories. Take advantage of the word-nursery and allow your stories–and others’–to grow, flourish, and mature.

John Caruso
For as long as John can remember, creativity has bubbled through his life. From his days as a young boy recording off-the-cuff "radio plays" on an old Sears portable cassette recorder to starting his own photography business to playing tin whistle in a Pogues/Waterboys cover band to writing two novels in search of a publisher, John has been delighted by all endeavors creative. Even a 20+ year detour into the nine-to-five world of not-for-profit education and outreach couldn't deter him from seeing the beauty in everyday moments and easily-overlooked details. Finding art in the mundane is his daily quest, and one which can produce some extraordinary truths.
Currently, John is teaching creative writing to elementary and high school students, editing a daily newsletter for employees of a major pet food company, and writing his weekly ImPROMPTu posts for the Inked Voices' group of the same name. He's photographing both for art's sake and for commercial ends. He's shooting a second cookbook. And somewhere in the moments in between he's writing a book on "everyday creativity."


Welcome to the Inked Voices blog. 😀 This will be a place to talk about process, both as individual writers and as members of writing groups, about craft, and about creativity. The ingredients that go into the bowl to make your work the best it can be.

Here is a little bit about me.

Here I am!

You could say that I drank the kool-aid when it comes to working in groups. I loved my business school classes in Management and Organizations and I –almost always—enjoyed group projects. In my former marketing role, my favorite projects were collaborations with sales or HR or the operations team. When I reflect on why, I think it’s the possibility for a bigger vision and the ability to work together to achieve it. I like being on a team.

A writing group is an interesting application of a team. There are some who truly write collaboratively as co-writers. But more writers work individually on altogether different projects. And in that sense a writing group is a collection of people seeking similar outcomes. Perhaps that outcome is broad, like writing consistently. Or it could be more specific, like mastering the art of writing a thriller. In either case, writers are able to band together with their peers to support, encourage and coach one another towards their shared goal. And along the way, hopefully, make some good friends.

I’ve been so very lucky to work with leaders and members of writing groups since our beta went up in March 2014. We have some truly awesome writing groups, more than 60 at this writing, and I’ve learned from listening to and working with our writers. I’ve learned by making mistakes and from our groups that haven’t panned out, too.

In the second half of 2015, I started to really examine and work on my own writing process. I’m an entrepreneur and a mom of young children and a writer. And in the winter I am a ski coach for people with disabilities, too. And so I am very interested in the practical side of executing on this writing thing – making time, bringing energy, prioritizing, finding creative head space. This blog will address individual process, too.

Thankfully for both you and me, this blog won’t be “all me”. The blog will also feature regular contributions by John Caruso, one of our members who approached me nearly two years ago to ask about starting a group focused on process and prompts. To date, John has created 99 (!!) writing prompts that are wonderful because they do not just help people generate new creative ideas, but they get them thinking about their work in new ways. John has been sharing these with Inked Voices’ members each month in our newsletter, and weekly in his group imPROMPTu. I am delighted that this blog will give him the larger audience that he so richly deserves.

We will share guest posts as well, so long as they fit the scope shared above. Please send me a note if you are interested in contributing. I’m also open to your suggestions of topics you’d like to see.

Thanks for reading and I’m looking forward to this!



Brooke McIntyre
Brooke McIntyre is the founder of Inked Voices, helping writers write more and write better through its platform for online writing groups and its app Ink On. She’s passionate about using technology to facilitate peer learning, about connecting with people on a human-level on the web, and, of course, about writing. Brooke received her undergraduate degree from the University of Virginia and her MBA from the University of Michigan. She lives with her husband, two kiddos and their muppet of a dog in Brooklyn.